The Kazakh khanates workers Secret Service called "ertoulami" from the Mongolian word "ergeul", which literally means the observer, security, guard, yurts, tents.
Thus, in the empire of Genghis Khan and in the Kazakh steppe yurt it has become not only a symbol of protection or the protection of the home and area, but also a symbol of the Secret Service.
In this connection it is appropriate to recall that according to the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan having the force of Constitutional Law "On state symbols of the Republic of Kazakhstan" from 24.01.1996g. The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan is an image shanyrak (the cupola of a yurta) on a blue background, which in all directions in the form of sunlight diverge uyki (support) in the frame of wings of mythical horses. At the bottom of the coat of arms the inscription "Kazakhstan". Shanyrak yurt framed by wings of mythical horses, symbolizing the protection of the homeland, he took to himself as the emblem of the National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The word "ertoul" had, as stated above, several meanings observer, guard, guard, spy, illegal, and translated into modern language - the agent, spy, spy.
Of course, our ancestors did not use these words and terms. They did not know, and concepts such as economic, industrial, space espionage, which is the "invention" of the age of civilization, a result of the development of science, technology, social consciousness, which led to the improvement of the techniques and methods of the secret service.
But Kazakh rulers at that time already through ertoulov (agents) collected intelligence information about the nature of their neighbors, and in the country revealed disgruntled regime of so-called "rebels, ragged" and possible opposition.
Scouting the necessary information about their opponents, especially about military preparations and other actions not only engaged in the Kazakh khans, and other rulers. Here are some examples.
Khan, the so-called the Uzbek ulus Abulhair (1718-1748) sent his ertoulov to Samarkand, to collect data on discrediting his ruler Ospankozhu, particularly affecting interstate property relations and receiving any, he forced him Ospankozhu find a "common language".
Not once failed "mission" ertoulov Abulhair, send in Janybek camp. This happened thanks to the actions of his son Janybek-Kasim, who on his father's behalf to establish and neutralizes ertoulov Abulhair, penetrated and settled in their encampments.
So, in the Kazakh steppe is gradually gaining strength security prototype as a tool, which plays an important role in defending the interests of the state.
When Ablayhane (1740-1781) led all ertoulami batyrs Derlibay and Tursunbay. It is well known that in the Kazakh steppe batyrs always played a key role in the defense of the homeland, leading a people's militia. Personal courage and fearlessness in the fights and battles, turned them into a special social category, that is, Khan's support thrones. So, apparently, the rulers and trusted batyrs lead ertoulami (secret service).
When Ablayhane ertouly led by batyr Derlibaem, extracted the information that in China under the leadership of Zha Hui is preparing a campaign against Ablai, and it is time to take countermeasures, tore this campaign.
Ablayhan also strengthened its position and has improved relations with the rulers of Samarkand, thanks to reliable information obtained through their ertoulov scouts.
Here is another example. Ablayhanu by introducing illegal ertoulov the camp Jungars Galdan Tseren managed to get precise information about the place of deployment of troops Galdan Tseren and sudden blow to defeat Dzhungars.
With diplomacy Ablayhan and other Kazakh khans pursue an active policy to strengthen its territory and international relations. Diplomatic means were used by them in order to learn about the strengths and weaknesses of the enemy, and sometimes find themselves allies. and present activities of the secret service in these diplomatic missions. Under the "roof" of employees of embassies, interpreters and other personnel used ertouly scouts. It is no accident in the old intelligence activities associated with the activities of diplomats, warriors exploits and discoveries of travelers. Not without reason was common among the people is a saying: "If the eye that sees the whole world. Whether the ear that can listen to the whole world. " I understand the role of ambassadors. For example, Ambassador Uysun state in Han Chinese State prepared a report on the economic and human potential of the latter, which subsequently helped to establish its Uysun neighborly relations at a higher level and avoid possible confrontation.
In 1757, on its own initiative Ablayhan sent an embassy to China of 11 people -. Umurzhay, Tanis, etc. Among them were ertouly scouts. The goal - a diplomatic way to try to resolve the issue of the return of native lands in the eastern Kazakh Tarbagatai. Second Kazakh Embassy in China on behalf of the Sultan led Ablayhana Urus.
The tsarist government of Russia, in turn, has sent his scouts to Ablayhanu under the guise of merchants, interpreters, to see if there are really friendly and diplomatic relations between Ablayhanom and the Qing government of China. Ablayhan established close relations with Russia. Such a policy of balancing enabled him to preserve the independence of the Kazakh state during his reign the khanate.
All of the above information on the Kazakh rulers and some facts concerning the activities of the secret services, the author of chapters taken from the writings of Dr. éringes Hara-Davan "Genghis Khan as the commander and his heritage"; I.Esenberlina "Nomads" (trilogy). Its the same "Golden Horde"; I.V.Erofeevoy "Kazakh khans and Kazakh dynasty in the XVIII century", it also "commander Abul Khair Khan, ruler and politician"; A.I.Levshina "Description Kirghiz-Cossack or Kirghiz Kaisak hordes and steppes"; S.Sagnaevoy "Khan's power in the Kazakh society"; K.Hafizovoy "First Kazakh Embassy in China"; M.Abuseitovoy "Diplomacy Kazakh khans'; V.A.Moiseeva "Dzhungar Khanate and the Kazakhs in the XVII - XVIII centuries"; Academician S.Zimanova "The social system of the Kazakhs", as well as 5-volume history of Kazakhstan.
In conclusion, it should be emphasized again that the history of the security services in the Kazakh steppe begins with the reign of khans Abulhair and Janybek, and the service is activated when Ablayhane, based on the fact that the protection of state interests, its integrity have become a common model and the main direction of the special services.